20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (with the original illustrations by Alphonse de Neuville)
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Ned Land becomes so reclusive that Conseil fears for the harpooner's life. But one morning Ned announces that they're in sight of shore and have a chance to escape. Professor Aronnax is more than ready to leave Captain Nemo, whom he now holds in horror. Yet he's still drawn to the man, and, fearing that Nemo's very presence could weaken his resolve, he avoids contact with the captain. Before their departure, however, the professor eavesdrops on Nemo and overhears him crying out in anguish, "O almighty God!
But as they board the ship's skiff, they realize that the Nautilus has seemingly blundered into the ocean's deadliest whirlpool, the Moskenstraumen , more commonly known as the "Maelstrom". Nonetheless they manage to escape and find refuge on an island off the coast of Norway.
But the submarine's ultimate fate remains unknown.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Captain Nemo's assumed name recalls Homer's Odyssey , a Greek epic poem. In The Odyssey , Odysseus meets the monstrous Cyclops Polyphemus during the course of his wanderings. In the Latin translation of the Odyssey , this pseudonym is rendered as " Nemo ", which also translates as "No man" or "No one". Like Captain Nemo, Odysseus wanders the seas in exile though only for 10 years and likewise grieves the tragic deaths of his crewmen.
Verne's text repeatedly mentions U. Naval Commander Matthew Fontaine Maury , an actual oceanographer who investigated the winds, seas, and currents, collected samples from the depths, and charted the world's oceans. Maury was internationally famous, and Verne may have known of his French ancestry.
In one of the novel's most famous episodes, the above-cited battle with a school of giant squid , one of the monsters captures a crew member: lifted into the air, the man yells "Help! Reflecting on the battle in the next chapter, Aronnax writes: "To convey such sights, it would take the pen of our most renowned poet, Victor Hugo, author of The Toilers of the Sea. Certainly Verne was influenced by Hugo's novel, and, in penning this variation on its octopus encounter, he may have intended the symbol to also take in the Revolutions of Other symbols and themes pique modern critics.
Margaret Drabble , for instance, argues that Verne's masterwork also anticipated the ecology movement and influenced French avant-garde imagery. As for additional motifs in the novel, Captain Nemo repeatedly champions the world's persecuted and downtrodden. While in Mediterranean waters, the captain supplies financial support to rebels resisting Ottoman rule during the Cretan Revolt of — , proving to Professor Aronnax that he hadn't severed all relations with terrestrial mankind. In another episode, Nemo rescues an East Indian pearl diver from a shark attack, then gives the fellow a pouch full of pearls, more than the man could have gathered after years of his hazardous work.
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea Illustrated (Original Illustrations by Alphonse de Neuville)
Nemo remarks later that the diver, as a native of British Colonial India, "lives in the land of the oppressed". Indeed, the novel has an under-the-counter political vision, hinted at in the character and background of Captain Nemo himself. In the novel's initial drafts, the mysterious captain was a Polish nobleman , whose family and homeland were slaughtered by Russian forces during the Polish January Uprising of However, these specifics were suppressed during the editing stages at the behest of Verne's publisher, Pierre-Jules Hetzel , believed responsible by today's scholars for many modifications of Verne's original manuscripts.
At the time France was a putative ally of the Russian Empire , hence Hetzel insisted on Verne's suppressing the identity of Nemo's enemy, both to avoid political complications and also reduced sales should the novel appear in Russian translation. Hetzel was a thoroughly commercial publisher It revises the captain's nationality from Polish to East Indian, changing him into a fictional descendant of Tipu Sultan , Muslim ruler of Mysore who resisted the expansionism of the British East India Company.
Consequently, Nemo's unnamed enemy is converted into France's old antagonist, the British Empire. Born as an Indian aristocrat, one Prince Dakkar, Nemo participated in one of the 19th century's major uprisings, the Indian Rebellion of , ultimately quashed by the United Kingdom. After his family members were slain by the British, Nemo fled underseas, then made a final reappearance in the later novel's concluding pages. Verne took the name "Nautilus" from one of the earliest successful submarines , built in by Robert Fulton , who also invented the first commercially successful steamboat.
Fulton named his submarine after a marine mollusk, the chambered nautilus. Three years before completing his book, Jules Verne also studied a model of the newly developed French Navy submarine Plongeur at the Exposition Universelle , which inspired him in his development of the novel's Nautilus.
Professor H's Wayback Machine: Jules Verne, Part 33
The breathing apparatus used by divers on the Nautilus is presented as a combination of two existing systems: 1 the surface supplied  hardhat suit, which was fed oxygen from the shore through tubes; 2 a later, self-contained apparatus designed by Benoit Rouquayrol and Auguste Denayrouze in Their gear featured tanks fastened to the back, which supplied air to a facial mask via the first-known demand regulator. Its air tanks could hold only 30 atmospheres, however Nemo claims that his futuristic adaptation could do far better: "the Nautilus' s pumps allow me to store air under considerable pressure While The Mysterious Island seems to give more information about Nemo or Prince Dakkar , it is muddied by the presence of several irreconcilable chronological contradictions between the two books and even within The Mysterious Island.
Verne returned to the theme of an outlaw submarine captain in his much later Facing the Flag. That book's main villain, Ker Karraje, is a completely unscrupulous pirate acting purely and simply for gain, completely devoid of all the saving graces which gave Nemo—for all that he, too, was capable of ruthless killings—some nobility of character.
Like Nemo, Ker Karraje plays "host" to unwilling French guests—but unlike Nemo, who manages to elude all pursuers, Karraje's career of outlawry is decisively ended by the combination of an international task force and the rebellion of his French captives. Though also widely published and translated, it never attained the lasting popularity of Twenty Thousand Leagues. More similar to the original Nemo, though with a less finely worked-out character, is Robur in Robur the Conqueror —a dark and flamboyant outlaw rebel using an aircraft instead of a submarine—and its sequel Master of the World.
Mercier cut nearly a quarter of Verne's original text and made hundreds of translation errors, sometimes dramatically changing the meaning of Verne's original intent including uniformly mistranslating French scaphandre — properly "diving apparatus" — as "cork-jacket", following a long-obsolete meaning as "a type of lifejacket ". Some of these mistranslations have been done for political reasons, such as Nemo's identity and the nationality of the two warships he sinks, or the portraits of freedom fighters on the wall of his cabin which originally included Daniel O'Connell.
Scaphandre is correctly translated as "diving apparatus" and not as "cork-jackets". In the s, Anthony Bonner published an essentially complete translation of the novel for Bantam Classics. Most of Mercier's errors were again corrected in a fresh re-examination of the sources and a new translation by Walter James Miller and Frederick Paul Walter, published in by Naval Institute Press in a "completely restored and annotated edition".
He includes detailed notes, an extensive bibliography, appendices and a wide-ranging introduction studying the novel from a literary perspective. In particular, his original research on the two manuscripts studies the radical changes to the plot and to the character of Nemo urged on Verne by the first publisher, Jules Hetzel.
Theodore L. Thomas in said that "there is not a single bit of valid speculation" in the novel and that "none of its predictions has come true". He described the depictions of the diving gear, scenes, and the Nautilus as "pretty bad, behind the times even for In none of these technical situation did Verne take advantage of knowledge readily available to him at the time".
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Thomas said, however, that despite poor science, plot, and characterization, "Put them all together with the magic of Verne's story-telling ability, and something flames up. A story emerges that sweeps incredulity before it". The national origin of Captain Nemo was changed in most feature film realizations; in nearly all picture-based works following the book Nemo was made into a European.
Nemo is also depicted as Indian in the silent film version of the story and later in both the graphic novel and the film The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. In Walt Disney 's 20, Leagues Under the Sea , a live-action Technicolor film adaptation of the novel, Captain Nemo is European, bitter because his wife and son were tortured to death by those in power in the fictional prison camp of Rorapandi, in an effort to get Nemo to reveal his scientific secrets. This is Nemo's motivation for sinking warships in the film. Also, Nemo's submarine is confined to a set circular section of the Pacific Ocean, unlike the original Nautilus.
In this version, he is played by British actor James Mason , with an English accent, with no mention being made of Indians. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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It tells the story of Captain Nemo and his submarine Nautilus, as seen from the perspective of Professor Pierre Aronnax. The title refers to the distance travelled while under the sea and not to a depth, as 20, leagues is over six times the diameter, and nearly three times the circumference of the Earth.
The greatest depth mentioned in the book is four leagues. The book uses metric leagues, which are four kilometres each. A literal translation of the French title would end in the plural "seas", thus implying the "seven seas" through which the characters of the novel travel. The book was highly acclaimed when released and still is now; it is regarded as one of the premiere adventure novels and one of Verne's greatest works. Jules Verne was a French novelist, poet, and playwright best known for his adventure novels and his profound influence on the literary genre of science fiction.
Product Details About the Author. About the Author. Date of Birth: February 8, Date of Death: March 24, Place of Birth: Nantes, France. Place of Death: Amiens, France. Average Review. Write a Review.